noids of the jejunum and ileum: an immunohistochemi-cal and clinicopathologic study of 167 cases. Cancer
16. Modlin IM, Gustafsson BI, Moss SF, Pavel M, Tsolakis AV,
Kidd M. Chromogranin A--biological function and clinical
utility in neuro endocrine tumor disease. Ann Surg Oncol
17. Lamberts SW, Bakker WH, Reubi JC, Krenning EP. Soma-tostatin-receptor imaging in the localization of endocrine
tumors. N Engl J Med 1990;323:1246–9.
18. Khashab MA, Yong E, Lennon AM, et al. EUS is still superior to multidetector computerized tomography for detection
of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. Gastrointest Endosc
19. Thoeni RF, Mueller-Lisse UG, Chan R, et al. Detection of
small, functional islet cell tumors in the pancreas: selection
of MR imaging sequences for optimal sensitivity. Radiology
20. Anderson MA, Carpenter S, Thompson NW, et al. Endoscopic ultrasound is highly accurate and directs management in patients with neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas. Am J Gastroenterol 2000;95:2271–7.
21. Modlin IM, Lye KD, Kidd M. A 5-decade analysis of 13,715
carcinoid tumors. Cancer 2003;97:934–59.
22. Bartsch DK, Langer P, Wild A, et al. Pancreaticoduodenal
endocrine tumors in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1:
surgery or surveillance? Surgery 2000;128:958–66.
23. Goode PN, Farndon JR, Anderson J, et al. Diazoxide in
the management of patients with insulinoma. World J Surg
24. Hirschowitz BI, Simmons J, Mohnen J. Clinical outcome
using lansoprazole in acid hypersecretors with and without
Zollinger-Ellison syndrome: a 13-year prospective study.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2005;3:39–48.
25. Lambers CB, Lind T, Moberg S, et al. Omeprazole in
Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Effects of a single dose and of
long-term treatment in patients resistant to histamine H2-
receptor antagonists. N Engl J Med 1984;310:758–61.
26. Metz DC, Comer GM, Soffer E, et al. Three-year oral
pantoprazole administration is effective for patients with
Zollinger-Ellison syndrome and other hypersecretory conditions. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2006;23:437–44.
27. Metz DC, Sostek MB, Ruszniewski P, et al. Effects of
esomeprazole on acid output in patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome or idiopathic gastric acid hypersecretion.
Am J Gastroenterol 2007;102:2648–54.
28. Jockenhovel F, Lederbogen S, Olbricht T, et al. The
long-acting somatostatin analogue octreotide alleviates
symptoms by reducing posttranslational conversion of
prepro-glucagon to glucagon in a patient with malignant
glucagonoma, but does not prevent tumor growth. Clin
29. Alexander EK, Robinson M, Staniec M, Dluhy RG. Peripheral amino acid and fatty acid infusion for the treatment of
necrolytic migratory erythema in the glucagonoma syndrome. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2002;57:827–31.
30. Kaltsas G, Korbonits M, Heintz E, et al. Comparison
of somatostatin analog and meta-iodobenzylguanidine
radionuclides in the diagnosis and localization of advanced neuroendocrine tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab
31. Reubi JC. Peptide receptor expression in GEP-NET. Virchows Arch 2007;451 Suppl 1:S47–50.
32. Feldman JM, O’Dorisio TM. Role of neuropeptides and
serotonin in the diagnosis of carcinoid tumors. Am J Med
33. Oberg K, Kvols L, Caplin M, et al. Consensus report on the
use of somatostatin analogs for the management of neuroendocrine tumors of the gastroenteropancreatic system.
Ann Oncol 2004;15:966–73.
34. Yao JC, Pavel M, Phan AT, et al. Chromogranin A and
neuron-specific enolase as prognostic markers in patients
with advanced pNET treated with everolimus. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2011;96:3741–9.
35. Ter-Minassian M, Chan JA, Hooshmand SM, et al. Clinical
presentation, recurrence, and survival in patients with neuroendocrine tumors: results from a prospective institutional
database. Endocr Relat Cancer 2013;20:187–96.
36. Modlin IM, Kidd M, Latich I, et al. Current status of gastrointestinal carcinoids. Gastroenterology 2005;128:1717–51.
37. Lundin L, Norheim I, Landelius J, et al. Carcinoid heart
disease: relationship of circulating vasoactive substances
to ultrasound-detectable cardiac abnormalities. Circulation
38. Pellikka PA, Tajik AJ, Khandheria BK, et al. Carcinoid heart
disease. Clinical and echocardiographic spectrum in 74
patients. Circulation 1993;87:1188–96.
39. Simula DV, Edwards WD, Tazelaar HD, et al. Surgical pathology of carcinoid heart disease: a study of 139 valves
from 75 patients spanning 20 years. Mayo Clin Proc
40. Bhattacharyya S, Davar J, Dreyfus G, Caplin ME. Carcinoid heart disease. Circulation 2007;116:2860– 5.
41. Bhattacharyya S, Raja SG, Toumpanakis C, et al. Outcomes, risks and complications of cardiac surgery for carcinoid heart disease. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2011;40:168–
42. Rubin J, Ajani J, Schirmer W, et al. Octreotide acetate
long-acting formulation versus open-label subcutaneous
octreotide acetate in malignant carcinoid syndrome. J Clin
Oncol 1999;17:600– 6.
43. Kvols L, Moertel C, O’Connell M, et al. Treatment of the